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Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage

Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site is located in Telemark County, Norway. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site started the modern industrial revolution in Norway. The site is situated around Lake Heddalsvatnet and the plant built by the Norsk Hydro in 1905, the plant used air to capture nitrogen to create artificial fertilizer. Norsk Hydro started in Notodden with the power of the Tinnfoss waterfall, using water to create electric power. Notodden became the pioneer place to develop methods of large scale production. In 1907 the largest power station of Europe was built in Svelgvoss. In 1911 the largest power station in the world was built to harness the energy of the Rjukan waterfall, the Vemork hydroelectric plant at Rjukan. The Vemork hydroelectric plant supplied electricity to the saltpetre factories of Rjukan and from 1929 to the hydrogen factory in Vemork. In 1928 a new production method was found, byproduct was heavy water. The factory in Vemork was an Allied target during WWII. The production of heavy water had to be stopped to sabotage the nazis, who occupied Norway in 1940 (Film: The Heroes of telemark). Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site comprises hydroelectric power plants, factories, transportsystems and company towns. The Telemark Waterways, composed of lakes and rivers, the railways of Rjukanbanen and Tinnosbanen, were used to transport goods and people. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site gained status as an UNESCO World Heritage in 2015.

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Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated outside Rjukan, the plant was built in...

Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated outside Rjukan, the plant was built in 1911and  at the time the largest in the world. In 1988, the plant became the Norsk Industriarbeidermuseum, the Norwegian Industrial Workers Museum. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site is an exceptional combination of industry and natural landscape.The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site comprises hydroelectric power plants, factories, transportsystems, railways and towns. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site gained the status as an UNESCO World Heritage in 2015.

  1. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated outside Rjukan, the plant was built in...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated outside Rjukan, the plant was built in 1911and  at the time the largest in the world. In 1988, the plant became the Norsk Industriarbeidermuseum, the Norwegian Industrial Workers Museum. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site is an exceptional combination of industry and natural landscape.The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site comprises hydroelectric power plants, factories, transportsystems, railways and towns. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site gained the status as an UNESCO World Heritage in 2015.

  2. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The suspension bridge crossing the 200 metres deep Vemork gorge at Rjukan in Telemark. The Vemork...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The suspension bridge crossing the 200 metres deep Vemork gorge at Rjukan in Telemark. The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated high up in the mountains and is only reachable by a suspension bridge, spanning a breathtaking deep gorge. The Rjukan-Notodden industrial complex marked the beginning of the Norwegian industrial revolution, it was the first place hydroelectricity was used to power large scale industry. The Vemork plant outside the small town of Rjukan is the core of the Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site.

  3. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: In 1911, the Vemork hydroelectric power plant was built to harness the energy of the...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: In 1911, the Vemork hydroelectric power plant was built to harness the energy of the waterfalls around Rjukan. The waterfalls and streams on the Hardangervidda, one of the most inhospitable regions in Norway, were used to make electric power, the electric power was used to produce artificial fertilizer. At the time, the Vemork plant was the largest hydroelectric power plant in the world, it supplied electricity to the saltpetre factories in Rjukan and from 1929 to the hydrogen factory in Vemork. In 1928, a new production method was found, the byproduct was heavy water.

  4. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: A German military BMW motorbike, used during World War II, on display in the Vemork hydroelectric...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: A German military BMW motorbike, used during World War II, on display in the Vemork hydroelectric plant, the plant is situated near Rjukan. Nowadays, the Vemork hydroelectric plant is the Norwegian Industrial Workers Museum. There are several exhibitions: about the industrial revolution in Norway, Norway during World War II and an exhibition about the heavy water acts of sabotage against the Nazis, who invaded Norway in 1940. There were several acts of sabotage during World War II, the most successfull was 'Operation Gunnerside' (Film: The Heroes of Telemark). 

  5. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site:  The Vemork hydroelectric plant, a reconstruction of 'Operation Gunnerside': Members...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site:  The Vemork hydroelectric plant, a reconstruction of 'Operation Gunnerside': Members of the resistance planting several explosives to destroy the cascade of electrolysis chambers. Electrolysis chambers were used to produce heavy water. After Operation Gunnerside, the Vemork heavy water plant was out of action for six months. Without consulting their allies, the U.S. army carried out a bombing raid in 1943. This air raid killed many innocent civilians and damaged the factory, but the stock of heavy water was not destroyed. The Vemork hydroelectric plant was closed in 1971.

  6. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: A barrel of heavy water. The railway ferry Hydro was carrying 600 kg of heavy water the day that...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: A barrel of heavy water. The railway ferry Hydro was carrying 600 kg of heavy water the day that she was sunk by the Norwegian resistance. In the early 1990s the wreck of the ferry Hydro was found by a mini-submarine, also barrels containing heavy water were found on board. Two barrels of heavy water have been salvaged. Analyses of the contents of one of the sealed barrels confirmed that they contained heavy water. One of the barrels can be viewed in the former Vemork hydroelectric plant, nowadays the Norwegian Industrial Workers Museum. 

  7. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: A memorial outside Rjukan to commemmorate the 'Heroes of Telemark'. The Vemork hydroelectric...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: A memorial outside Rjukan to commemmorate the 'Heroes of Telemark'. The Vemork hydroelectric plant was the first mass producer of heavy water in the world. Norway was occupied in 1940 by Nazi Germany, the Nazis used heavy water trying to produce an atomic bomb. To prevent this project, in 1943, the Vemork hydroelectric plant was sabotaged in 'Operation Gunnerside', carried out by Norwegian resistance fighters, trained in Britain. This was the most successfull act of sabotage in all of World War II.

  8. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated high up in the mountains. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Vemork hydroelectric plant is situated high up in the mountains. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site contributed to the fact that Norway has become one of the richest countries in the world within 100 years. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site is 80 km long, it stretches from the dam on Lake Møsvatn to Notodden, it follows the water flow from Lake Møsvatn to Lake Heddalsvatnet near Notodden. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2015.

  9. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Mæl Railway Station of the Rjukanbanen  in Tinn. The Mæl Station is the...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The Mæl Railway Station of the Rjukanbanen  in Tinn. The Mæl Station is the terminus of the Rjukanbanen railway, from here the railway wagons were transferred to the railway ferry to Tinnoset. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site comprises hydroelectric power plants, factories, transportsystems and towns. The Telemark Waterways, composed of lakes and rivers, the railways of the Rjukanbanen and Tinnosbanen, were used to transport goods and people. The Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site was declared as an UNESCO World Heritage in 2015.

  10. Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage - Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The SF Ammonia at Mæl. SF Ammonia is a steam powered railway ferry on Lake Tinnsjø, the...

    Rjukan-Notodden Industrial Heritage Site: The SF Ammonia at Mæl. SF Ammonia is a steam powered railway ferry on Lake Tinnsjø, the ferry connected the Rjukanbanen and Tinnosbanen, at Mæl and Tinnoset. The Ammonia was built in 1929. The Ammonia was the third railway ferry that was used by Norsk Hydro to transport heavy water, chemicals and passengers. SF Hydro, built in 1914, was a sistership of the SF Ammonia. After the sinking of SF Hydro in 1944 by Norwegian resistance fighters to prevent the Nazis from sending heavy water to Germany, SF Ammonia had to do the main transport across Lake Tinnsjø. SF Ammonia is one of the four remaining steam powered ferries in the world.